How to identify and prevent heat stress in plants


When a heatwave hits, plants may show the impact.

  • Heat stress in cucurbita moschata
    Heat stress in cucurbita moschata

    Most plants grow best in temperature ranges 59-86F.

  • When temperatures above 90F are sustained for long periods, plant growth is slowed, and some plants begin to show signs of stress.
  • Above 104F, many plants will survive but will show different signs of heat stress dependent on plant type, maturity of the plant, and factors that often come with high temperatures, such as drought or wind.
  • Extreme air and soil temperatures slow down chemical activity and growth in plants.

Visit Oregon State University Extension for the full article.


2021 Pacific Northwest District photo contest

It’s time to be thinking about the annual Pacific Northwest District photo contest!

(This article was taken from the June 2021 Rose Ramblings newsletter of the Spokane Rose Society. Click on the images to go to the source site and see the full size image.)

The contest rules and classes follow.

Please note that the roses in the photos do not have to be photographer-grown. Also note that there is a significant change from last year’s contest. Entrants are to categorize themselves as either a “Master” or an “Amateur.”

Dr. Tommy Cairns, by Bill Kozemchak
Dr. Tommy Cairns, by Bill Kozemchak

Consider yourself a “Master” if your rose photos have won five ARS (National) or other District con-test classes, or have been awarded five or more first-place-in-Class placements in the PNW District contest in years past. If you have previously won five or more first place Class awards in the “Amateur” division of previous PNW District ARS con-tests, please enter this year’s entries in the “Master” division.

Consider yourself an “Amateur” if you take photos for your own pleasure and haven’t entered other photo contests or have not won any (or more than four) Class awards or the Best of Show photo in a District contest previously.

All first-place photos in all classes within each division will become eligible for judging for the “Best of Show” awards. The winning photos and award certificates for each class, as well as the “Best of Show” winners (Master or Amateur), will be announced at the PNW District Fall Conference.

Since the Fall Conference will be a virtual one this year, we are still working out the plans on how exactly to announce the 2021 photo entries.

Email your entries to: Harlow Young at threegkids @ charter . net by midnight, September 15, 2021. If you would like to be a judge for this contest, please email Harlow at the same address.

2021 Pacific Northwest District Photo Contest Rules

There is a PDF of of the rules and the classes. You can grab that here.

  1. blooms of ‘Hilde’
    A pretty set of blooms of ‘Hilde’.
    Photo by Andrew Hearne

    You can enter up to eight images per Class.

  2. It is preferable (and strongly encouraged) that your photos be electronically submitted in JPEG image format. Alternatively, you can mail prints to Harlow Young, 3218 W. 2nd Ave., Kennewick, Washington 99336. Prints will be scanned and saved into an appropriate format for presentation to the judges and returned, if requested.
  3. The photos in Classes 1-6 and 8-11 may be lightly, but not overly, enhanced by the use of any graphic program such as Photoshop, Elements or Photo Impact, etc. for the purpose of cropping, rotation, lightening or darkening, minor cleanup corrections due to camera sensor “dirt” or sharpening of the image only. The exception may be for entries in Class 7 which permits significant editing when creating a desired abstract or impressionistic effect.
  4. The photos for this contest must be taken by a member of the ARS residing in the PNW District or who is a member of a local rose society within the Pacific Northwest District of the American Rose Society.
  5. Photos that have won “Class” or “Best in Show” awards in previous PNW District ARS contests are not eligible to be entered.
  6. Rose entries in Classes 1 through 7 must be identified by their ARS exhibition names. Grooming of the rose(s) at the time they are photographed is encouraged, and artificial backgrounds may be used. The roses do not need to be photographed in the garden or on the bush (except those entered in Class 10).
  7. When submitted, name each image to reflect its con-test Class and ARS exhibition name when required. For example: If you are entering a photo of ‘Gemini’ in the Amateur division in Class 1, you must add an “AC” to the entry code, as: “AC#1 Gemini” (this signifies “Amateur Class #1[Rose name] …”). Photos entered in the Master division must add an “MC” to their entry code, as given here: “MC#1, Gemini” (Master Class #1…).
  8. Email your entries to Harlow Young at threegkids @ charter . net. It is important that you include your name, address, phone number, e-mail and local rose society (if applicable) in the message. Also include any additional information that might be appropriate for the entry. If you’re mailing prints, mail without folding in a padded, oversized envelope to: Harlow Young, 3218 W. 2nd Avenue, Kennewick, Washington 99336. 9. Entries received after the deadline will not be included in the judging. Note: The Chair of the committee reserves the right to disqualify any entry that does not conform to these rules and guidelines.

Photo Contest Classes

  • rose on fire by Kristine Russell
    Rose on Fire by Kristine Russell

    CLASS 1. One bloom – exhibition stage, no side buds of hybrid tea, grandiflora, miniature, miniflora and floribunda classifications of roses.

    • NOTE: Roses designated by ARS standards as “single” in its petal count whose exhibition form is best in the open form must be entered in Class 3.
  • CLASS 2. One spray (two or more blooms on a single stem) of hybrid tea, grandiflora, floribunda, miniature, or
    miniflora classifications.
  • CLASS 3. One fully open bloom – any variety, stamens must show.
  • CLASS 4. One bloom or spray of a shrub (other than HT, GR, FL, Min, Min Fl, POL, OGR, species or climber), all on one stem only.
  • CLASS 5. One bloom or spray – of an OGR, species, polyantha or climber.
  • CLASS 6. A collection of multiple blooms – a minimum of three blooms of one or more varieties, at maximum stage of beauty for the variety(ies), arranged and photographed.
  • CLASS 7. Abstract or Impressionism – A non-objective design, form, or content of which evokes a sense of originality or a different way of imagining or viewing the subject. For this class only, you may creatively enhance your photo by coloring, cropping, painting, shadowing, blurring, layering, merging, etc.
  • CLASS 8. A photo of any rose garden. Photos in this class should show the use of roses within the structure of the garden. Roses should dominate the photo and some layout of the garden should be evident. Roses need not be identified.
  • For macro photography, Rod Hoover
    For macro photography, Rod Hoover captured a nice close up of a part of the rose

    CLASS 9. Macro photography – An EXTREME CLOSE-UP photo of any part of the rose or rose plant or any portion thereof. Color, black and white, sepia or combinations of these are permitted in this class.

  • CLASS 10. Director’s choice class – A photo of a rose bush in full bloom, or a photo of a large group of blooms on a bush, that is, NOT a photo of roses in a vase.
  • CLASS 11. Everything else – Any rose photo that doesn’t fit into any of classes 1 through 10.
    • It could be an image of roses with people, animals, etc., or of a rose society activity or an arrangement of roses. You should name the rose(s) in the photo if appropriate.
    • If the photo includes a local rose society activity or people, identify the society, the activity, and the people in the photo (unless it’s a crowd scene). Since the winning photo may be published on the District website or other District publication, it’s a good idea to have the permission of anyone who could be recognized in the picture.

If there are questions regarding any part of the contest rules, please contact Harlow Young: threegkids @ charter . net.


And again from Bill Kozemchak as reprinted in Portland’s Rose Chatter edited by Rich and Charold Baer:

(Editors note. This is a great activity for children.

Recently Bill Kozemchak’s Granddaughter Keira, (under ten years of age), won the junior section of the American Rose Society’s annual photo contest with a pictures of Camille Pissarro. Her photo was featured on the cover of the March/April edition of the American Rose magazine. Bill and I have both had that honor but it took us an additional 50 years of life to achieve that status.

I think she was really proud of her achievement.)

From the Sacramento Photography Contest Winners
from 2020, 1st place

You don’t need an expensive camera to have success. A cell phone, or point and shoot camera can produce great images and win in photo contests. Try to take advantage of any opportunities to get photos at rose shows, garden visits or rose conventions. If you don’t have your camera, use your cell phone!

When contest deadlines approach, it’s good to have a nice selection of photos to choose from.  Take the camera out to the garden, especially when it is at peak bloom. If you go on a garden tour or visit, take lots of shots and take different angles of blooms and garden views. Take multiples shots of each angle, especially if not using a tripod.

You can later delete the shots that are not in focus or have parts of the bloom cropped off. Many times, I thought I had a good shot on the camera and then put it on the larger computer screen, and it wasn’t as in focus as I had thought.

Make sure you have a large enough memory card or multiple cards so you don’t run out of space. If you have a replaceable battery, carry a spare and be sure it is fully charged. If you’re on a trip remember to take the charger.

Be sure the date imprinting is turned off if you’re thinking of entering the photos in a contest and also don’t put the name of the rose on the photo.

When shooting exhibition, open blooms or, or spray photos, you want to fill the frame as much as possible without cropping off parts of the petals. If you want your photo to do well, the bloom, spray or arrangement has to be very good quality, just as in a rose show. An exhibition bloom with no center or form will not win. An open bloom with old dark stamens will not win. An arrangement that got an honorable mention will probably not win in a photo contest.

If you are taking bloom photos in your own garden, groom the rose before you take the photo. A little petaloid sticking out in the middle of a nice open bloom can be very distracting, and while it may be possible to eliminate it with a photo editing program, it is time consuming compared to plucking it off in a few seconds. Moving a petal or two on a nice exhibition bloom to give it better form or a nice circular outline can also make a difference in the photo quality.

If you’re in friend’s garden, you should probably ask if it’s OK to do this. I’m sure it would be frowned upon in a public garden. Try to remove distractions in the background. Debris on the ground, other blooms or buds, black spotted leaves, name tags, or anything brightly colored will stick out and draw the judge’s attention from the bloom or spray that is supposed to be the focus of your photo.

Good luck in the contest!

Rose Logic for June 2021

by Lynn Schafer, our Master Rosarian. 

Morning has Broken
Morning has Broken

It is difficult, after nearly 40 years of editing this newsletter, to come up with something “new under the sun.” We grow roses, each year is different, new roses come…and go.

This is why I appreciate all the exchange newsletters I receive, as each of us has ideas to share, and while my roses may not need any adjustments, it doesn’t mean others have the same approach.

I truly appreciate Rich Baer with his wit and wisdom, more in his brain than I could even hope to achieve. But I try not to “over use” his writings or I would have to change the name of my newsletter!

Bill Kozemchak has edited the newsletter for the Philadelphia Rose Society for a number of years, and he always has some valuable insights for his readers. For instance: “I have been told if you ask ten rosarians how to grow roses, you’ll get twelve different answers. This is quite true. If things you are doing work well for you, don’t feel that you have to change because someone else does it differently.

The methods that follow are what well for me and my schedule. Every rose grower needs to tailor a rose care program to work with their needs and desires. If you see something you would like to try, do it. If it doesn’t work for you, do what does. The important thing is caring for the roses, not doing it a certain way because someone says it’s the best way.


The most important thing to do this month is watering. We don’t usually get much rain this time of year, so watering is very important. The temperatures are going up and rose bushes are getting quite large, requiring more water uptake.”

Organizing: Bill also had a very interesting idea. He made a video of his garden in peak bloom, walking through, narrating and explaining why he chose different areas of his garden for different types of roses, even different color schemes. He pointed out favorite varieties and low maintenance ones for beginners. My roses are certainly not so well organized, but I could agree in that my roses are placed so that the smaller growers or miniatures are not placed behind the large ones.

That said, a narrated video…or even one that could be shown as a PowerPoint on Zoom with live narration could work very well. Maybe we will actually have a day in the future when we can have in person meetings. Then it could be shown on the big screen in the meeting room.

Rose aphids often target tender flower buds.
Rose aphids often target tender flower buds.

Getting bugged? I don’t know about your roses, but mine have begun blooming much earlier than “normal,” whatever normal is. The color is vibrant, and there is no sign of disease at this point. I have heard a few references to aphids, but so far they have not arrived here. This coming week may change that if we again get temps in the 90s, so you may have to use my pinch method, some Safer’s Insecticidal Soap or a strong spray of water, your preference.

Insecticides also work (so does soapy water,) but you can probably handle it with the other methods. As Bill said in the quote I copied above, water is very important for your roses. We are so very fortunate to have a good water supply here in the Spokane area, but that doesn’t mean we should just waste it.

Mulching helps retain the water we give our roses, and it also helps with weed control. A watering system provides what your roses need on a regular basis so they don’t fluctuate between being too dry and then rescued by a deep watering.

Ko's Yellow
Ko’s Yellow

Fertilizing: After your roses have kind of wound down from the first bloom, you can apply one more application of granular fertilizer if you used that in the spring. I like to make up the alfalfa tea by filling a 32 gallon plastic garbage can with water, adding a coffee can or two of alfalfa pellets (no vitamin additives, just alfalfa), the covering it for several days to let it “age.” Then add a tablespoon per gallon (2 cups if I calculate correctly) of Miracle-gro or some other liquid fertilizer to the mixture and stir well.

Use a gallon per big rose or about half that on the minis. What I found interesting this year was most of my big roses were hit significantly by the deep freeze we had in February, at least that is what I blamed. A good portion of them were cut to the ground, and I even was concerned I might have lost several.

However, in a short time they began sending up new basals on the grafted roses and shoots on the own root roses like I don’t believe I have ever seen before. Out of nearly 200 roses I lost one mini and one old, old rose which I haven’t dug up as it may still grow.

If not, there are always other roses to take the place of those I lost. None of my roses were hilled up, but with years of using compost as a hilling medium and then spreading it out on the beds, they were probably more than protected.

What I have noticed, however, is the cold snap didn’t bother the weeds at all. Keep after them or you will regret it, not only this year but if they go to seed for many years to come!